• m14-305-10
    Inscribed Stele (©Archaeological Exploration of Sardis/President and Fellows of Harvard College)
  • m14-305-20
    Inscribed Stele, detail (©Archaeological Exploration of Sardis/President and Fellows of Harvard College)

Inscribed Stele: Boundary Stone of Sanctuary of Artemis

Date
March 4, 44 BC, Roman
Sardis or Museum Inv. No.
NoEx82.001
Material
Marble, Stone
Object Type
Stele, Inscription
Inscription Type
Decree or Other Decision
Inscription language
Greek
Inscription Text
		Ὅρος ἱερὸς ἄσυλος Ἀρτέμιδος
		Σαρδιανῆς, ὃν προσώρισεν
		ἐν Ῥώμηι Γάιος Καῖσαρ αὐτοκρά-
	4	τωρ καὶ ἀρχιερεύς, ὕπατος τὸ
		πέμπτον, δικτάτωρ διὰ βίου,
		πρεσβευσάντων ἐ̣[κ] τοῦ ἰδίου
		[βί]ου Λυσιμάχου τοῦ Μηνοφίλου,
	8	φύσει δὲ Μηνοφάντου, Δημητρ[ί]-
		ου τοῦ Μενάνδρου, φύσει δὲ Δη-
		μητρίου, Ναθειους. vac. 
		⟦[				] Ἀ̣ν̣τ̣ωνίου⟧
	12	⟦[			             Λυσί]μαχος⟧
		⟦[				   Μ]ενά[ν]-⟧
		⟦[δ]ρο[υ ?		           ]Ε . . . . . .ΠΟ⟧
		⟦[				          ]ΙΤ . ⟧
	16	⟦[	]Ε[		]Ε[	          ]Τ̣ΩΙ⟧
		⟦[				  ]ΛΙ . . . Ο .⟧
		⟦[				       ]Σ̣ΟΝΟ⟧
		⟦[				   ]Ε̣ . . .  Η̣⟧
	20	⟦[				   ]Α̣ . . . . . ⟧
		⟦[				       ]ΙΙΟΥΓ⟧
		⟦[					 ]Ε̣⟧
		⟦[				            ]ΩΡ̣⟧
	24	⟦[					 ]Ο̣⟧
		⟦[					    ]⟧
		⟦[					 ]Ε̣⟧
		⟦[					    ]⟧
	28	⟦[				        ]ΟΥΙΕ⟧
		⟦[				    ]Ν̣ . . . . Ι⟧
		⟦[			     ]⟧ δελτογράφημα·
		[Γ]ά̣[ι]ο̣[ς Κα]ῖ̣σ̣αρ αὐτοκράτωρ καὶ ἀρχιερεὺς δικτάτω[ρ]
	32	[τ]ε διὰ βίου ἐπέκρεινεν πρὸ ἡμερῶν τεσσάρω[ν]
		Ν̣ωνῶν Μαρτίων· vac. ἐπεὶ συνφωνεῖται τ[ὴν]
		πο[λ]ιτεί̣αν τῶν Σαρδιανῶν ἐν τῆι φιλί̣[α]ι̣ τοῦ δ[ή]-
		μου τοῦ Ῥ̣ωμαίων διὰ παντὸς γεγονέναι
	36	κ̣αὶ τὴ̣[ν  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . .  ]ν̣ πίστιν το[ῖς]
		τοῦ δήμο̣υ̣ π̣ρ̣άγμασιν̣ κ̣α̣ὶ̣ τῆι̣ συκλήτωι παρεσχ[ῆσ]-
		θ̣αι [  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  ] Λυσίμαχο[ς]
		Μηνοφίλου, [φύσει δὲ] Μηνοφάντου, καὶ Δημή-
	40	τριος Μενάνδρου, φύσ[ει δὲ Δη]μητρίου, Να̣[θ]ης
		[ . ]ΣΤΕΑ̣[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . . ]ν̣τες πολλά[ς]
		τε ἐν[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . ] πεπραγ[μέ]-
		νων εἰς τὴν ἡγεμονίαν [Ῥω]μ̣αίων· vac. ἀντὶ το[ύ]-
	44	των ἁπάντων ἀρέσκ̣ε̣ι α̣ὐ̣τ̣ο̣ῖς συνχωρεῖν ἃ ἐ-
		νεφάνισαν. vac. Τὸ ἱερὸν Ἀρτέμιδος Σαρδια-
		ν̣ῆ̣ς [ . . . . . ] ἄσυλον εἶναι τ̣[αὐτῶ]ι δικαίωι, ὧι κα[ὶ]
		τ̣ὸ τ̣ῆ̣ς Ἐφεσίας Ἀρτέμι[δός ἐσ]τ̣ι̣ν, καὶ τὸν να[ὸν]
	48	φύξιμ[ο]ν̣ ὄντα [τῆς] Ἀ̣[θ]ηνᾶ̣ς Νικηφόρου κ[αὶ]
		Τ[ . . . . . ]Ο̣Υ[ . . . . .  . . . ] ἅτινά ἐστιν ἐν τῆι πό[λει?]
		[ . . . . .  . . ]Ι̣ΤΟ[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . ] ἐν Κολό[ηι?]
		[ . . . . .  . . . . . ]Ρ̣Λ̣[ . ]ΙΕ̣[ . . . . .  . . . . .  .]ΤΛ̣[ . . ]ΛΙΚ[ . . ]
	52	[ . . . . .  . . . . . ]Α[ . . . . .  . . . . ]Τ[ . . . . ] ἐ̣στὶ̣ν̣ ἔν τε
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . ] τ̣[ῆς] Σ̣αρδιαν̣ῆ̣ς ὅροις, οἷς
		[ . . . . .  . . . . ]ΟΥ[ . . ]Ν τε̣ ε̣ἶναι Διὶ Μεγίστωι κ[ . . ]
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . ] τῶ̣ι Χ[ . . ]Λ[ . . ]ηρίωι, ὧι τ[ .]
	56	[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . ]Α̣Ρ̣Α̣ ἐ̣στ̣ὶν ὡς ἐν
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . ] ? Ἀ̣π̣ό[λ]λ̣ωνι συνεχώρησε
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . ] ἐ̣στὶν ἐν ὄρει Τμώλωι Ο[ . ]
		[ . . . ]Ω[ . . . . ]ΜΕΝΞ[ . . . . . ]καὶ ἱερὸν Νυμφαῖον
	60	[ . . . . .  . . ]Ε[ . ]Τ[ . . . . .  . . . . ]Ε̣Π̣Ι̣Μ̣Ε[ . ]ΙΛ̣Ι Σαρδιανο[ . ]
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . ] ἐ̣π̣ὶ̣ τοῖ̣ς α̣ὐ̣τοῖς δικαίοις, οἷ[ς]
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . ]Ν  vac.? τούς τ̣ε δημοσιών[ας?]
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  .]Μ̣Ι̣Ω[ . ] κ̣ατ᾿ ἐνιαυτὸν τελ[ . . ]
	64	τ[υν]χάνω[σι  . . . . .  . ] ἐπ̣ώφειλον τοῖς τ[ . ]
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . .  . ]Α̣Ι Σαρδιανοῖς συνε-
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . . ]ΝΟΥ̣Σ τε τοῦ Σαρδια-
		ν̣ῶν [ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . . ]Ν̣ καὶ ῥ̣άβδων ἠλευθ[έ]-
	68	[ρ]ωσε̣[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . ] ἀντάρχοντας, οἳ
		[ . . . . .  . . . . .  . . ]Ξ[ . . . . ]Σ ἔσονται vac. ταῦ̣-
		[τα  . . . . . ] κα[θι]έρωσεν(?), ἔδωκεν, συνεχώρ[η]-
		[σεν  . . . . .  . . . . .  . . ]Ε αὐτῶν ἀμύνεσθα[ι]
	72	[ . . . . .  . . ]Ε[ . . . ]Α ἀρέσκ̣ει vac. μήτε ὑπεναν̣-
		τ̣[ί]ως, ὧ̣ι̣ (?) Γάιος Κ̣α[ῖσα]ρ̣ αὐτοκράτωρ καὶ ἀρ̣[χ?]-
		[ιερ]ε̣ὺς δικτάτωρ τε διὰ βίου συνεχώρη-
		[σε]ν, ἔδωκεν, καθιέρωσεν, ἔστησεν,
	76	[ποι]ε̣ῖ̣ν̣ μήτε γίνεσθαι ἐᾶν.
Inscription Translation
“Sacred and inviolable boundary of the Sardian Artemis, which Gaius Caesar, imperator (4) and pontifex maximus, consul for the fifth time, dictator for life, defined and expanded in Rome. Ambassadors by their own means were Lysimachos, son (by adoption) of Menophilos, (8) natural son of Menophantos, (and) Demetrios (by his second name) Nathes, son (by adoption) of Menandros, natural son of Demetrios.”
On the erased portion of the inscription (ll. 11–30) there are only isolated letters visible and, toward the end of the first three lines, the following names: Antonios (11); [Lysi]machos (12); [M]ena[nd]ro[s] (ll. 13–14). In l. 30 the last word, δελτογράφηµα (“document written on a wooden tablet”), was not erased.
“Gaius Caesar, imperator and pontifex maximus, dictator (32) for life, has, on March 4, taken the following decision: As there is agreement that the community of Sardis has observed continuous friendship toward the Roman People (36) and [- - -] retained their loyalty toward the interests of the People and the Senate [as has been demonstrated by the ambassadors] Lysimachos, son (by adoption) of Menophilos, natural son of Menophantos, (and) Demetrios (40) (by his second name) Nathes, son (by adoption) of Menandros, natural son of Demetrios [- - -] many in [- - -] which has been achieved for the leadership of the Romans. As reward for (44) all this it is decided to concede to them what they had brought about: The sanctuary of the Sardian Artemis shall be inviolable by the same right as is the (sanctuary) of the Ephesian Artemis and the temple of Athena Nikephoros, (48) which is recognized as refuge, [- - -] which are in the city(?), [- - -] in Kolo[e?] (52) is within [- - -] the boundaries of the [territory of?] Sardis, which [- - -] shall be for Zeus Megistos [- - -] (56) is like in [- - -] conceded to Apollon(?) [- - -] is located on Mt. Tmolos [- - -] and sacred Nymphaion [- - -] (60) Sardian[- - -] by the same rights by which [- - -] the publicani [- - -] pay(?) per year [- - -] (64) they were indebted to the [- - -] conceded(?) to Sardians [- - -] of the [- - -] of the Sardians [- - -] and liberated from the fasces (68) [- - - magistrates or] promagistrates, who will be [- - -]. It has been resolved that [all that, which - - -] dedicated, donated, conceded [- - -] be defended; (72) and that nothing be done or permitted to take place contrary to what Gaius Caesar, imperator and pontifex maximus, dictator for life, has conceded, donated, dedicated and stipulated.”
Inscription Comment
Site
Sardis
Sector
PC
B-Grid Coordinates
ca. W240 / S635
Findspot
Found in the streambed of the Pactolus river during the winter of 1981-2 near Pactolus Cliff.
Description

Stele of white marble with gray veins, with tenon.

Dimensions
H. 2.02, W. 0.45–0.51, Th. ca. 0.28, H. of letters ll. 1–10: 0.014–17, ll. 30ff. 0.011–13.
Comments

For a detailed apparatus criticus and commentary see P. Herrmann’s publication and the summary given in SEG 39.

1–10 Statement of the Sardians concerning the boundary of inviolability.

6–7 For the expression ἐκ τοῦ ἰδίου βίου in Sardis, cf. no. 331, 9 and Sardis VII 1, no. 27, 12.

7 Lysimachos, son of Menophilos (see also ll. 12 and 38–39): Herrmann points to Sardis VII 1, no. 123, which mentions Λυσίµαχος Mηνοφίλου, who died at the age of 28 years. While he takes him as “nicht…identisch mit dem Gesandten unserer Inschrift” (p. 138 n. 22), Pleket, SEG 39 (app.), envisages that it could possibly be the same person.

8 Demetrios had Nαθης as his second name (see also ll. 39–40); Herrmann (p. 138 n. 22), following L. Robert, cites no. 325 where the patronym of the stephanephoros appears as genitive Nαθηους. The authors of LGPN VA, p. 328, s.v. Nάθης, consider that both persons bearing the name Nathes might be the same man.

11–30 Probably an accompanying letter of Marcus Antonius, which was deleted after the battle of Actium; cf. H. I. Flower, The Art of Forgetting (2006), pp. 119–21. Its last word (δελτογράφηµα) was not erased and serves as title for the following document whose author is Caesar.

31–76 Caesar’s decision allowing inviolability.

36 Possibly [εὔνοιαν καὶ] πίστιν or something like [ἐξοχωτάτη]ν̣ πίστιν.

37 συκλήτωι: read συνκλήτωι. - παρεσχ[ῆσ]/θ̣αι: παρ‹α›σχ[ῆσ]/θ̣αι Rigsby, inadvertently; for πίστεις παρεσχῆσθαι he refers, per litt., to Aeschin. 2, 56.

41 [ ]ν̣τες: or [ ]α̣ν̣τες

45–51 Rigsby “suspects that [ll. 47–51] do not contain references to other inviolable temples in Sardis (P. Herrmann), because such a collection of inviolable temples in one city is unparalleled; they may refer to foreign precedents cited by the Sardians as examples of asylia that had been recognized by the Romans” (SEG 46, 1522). He suggests “with much hesitation” (p. 436): Tὸ ἱερὸν Ἀρτέµιδος Σαρδια/ν̣ῆ̣ς [πάντ]ω̣ς (?, “vor A eventuell ΩΣ oder OIΣ,” Herrmann, p. 135) ἄσυλον εἶναι τ̣[αὐτῶ]ι δικαίωι, ὧι κα[ὶ] / τ̣ὸ τ̣ῆ̣ς Ἐφεσίας Ἀρτέµι[δος ἱερό]ν, καὶ τὸν να[ὸν] / (48) φύξιµ[ο]ν̣ ὄντα [τῆς] Ἀ̣[θ]ηνᾶ̣ξ Nικηφόρου κ[αὶ] / τ[ὸ ἱερὸν τ]ο̣ῦ [Ἀσκ]λ̣[ηπιοῦ], ἅτινά ἐστιν ἐν τῆι πό[λει / ∏εργάµωι κα]ὶ̣ τὸ [τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος τὸ] ἐν Kολο[φῶνι]. “The grammar of this reconstruction is discomforting, with the precedents as accusatives following upon Caesar’s declaration” (Rigsby, p. 436). Rigsby clarifies (per litt., July 2011): “In 45, I now believe that the sentence continues (as in Asylia 14.5): i.e., a comma rather than a period before τὸ ἱερόν…What I wrote about lines 46ff. was wishful thinking, because I could not believe that so many temples were declared inviolable in one city. But the text and structure which I proposed are strained and not credible.”

47–48 The temple of the Pergamene Athena Nikephoros: for the worship of that goddess in Sardis see no. 306, 10–11 comm.

50 As to the important and traditional cult of Kολοηνὴ Ἄρτεµις, Herrmann (p. 147) refers to Strabo 13, 4, 5 (pp. 626–27), assuming its mention here as quite possible. For Koloe see Malay, Manisa Museum, pp. 43–44, on no. 51.

53 [ ] τ̣[ῆς] Σ̣αρδιαν̣ῆ̣ς ὅροις: [γῆς or χώρας] τ̣[ῆς?] Σ̣αρδιαν̣ῆ̣ η ὅροις, Herrmann, p. 144.

54 For Zeus Megistos, cf. Sardis VII 1, no. 47, 4 (Mεγίστου ∏ολιέος ∆ιός); and Herrmann, pp. 147–48, with further references.

55 [ ]ηρίωι: an epithet of a deity (Χρηστηρίωι seems palaeographically excluded), Herrmann, p. 148.

57 For the worship in Sardis of Apollon (the reading of the god’s name is uncertain), see Herrmann, p. 148; in the inscription cited by him, concerning Apollon Pleurenos, the “Jahr 26/5 v.Chr.” has to be corrected to 150/149 BC, see no. 323.

59 ἱερὸν Nυµφαῖον: possibly the hot springs, located southeast of Sardis on the northern slopes of Mt. Tmolos (see l. 58), presently known as Sart Çamur Hamamları; see Herrmann, who refers to Sardis VII 1, no. 94.

60 Perhaps ἐπιµε[λ]ίαι (although there is hardly space for the Λ) or µερ̣ίδ̣ι, Herrmann; [ ]µενοι Σαρδιανο[ί?], Wörrle apud Herrmann.

62 τούς τ̣ε δηµοσιών[ας?]: or δηµοσιων[ι/κούς]?, hardly δηµοσιων[ί/ας] or δηµοσίων, Herrmann.

65–66 συνε[ ]: perhaps συνε/[χώρησε], Herrmann.

68 Perhaps [ἄρχοντας ἢ] ἀντάρχοντας, Latin magistratus prove magistratu, Herrmann.

69 [Ἀσία]ς? ἔσονται, Wörrle apud Herrmann.

72 Perhaps [πάντ]α ἀρέσκει, Herrmann.

73 ὧ̣ι̣(?): or ἧ̣ι̣, hardly ο̣ἷ̣ς, Herrmann.

See Also
Bibliography
P. Herrmann, Chiron 19 (1989), pp. 127–58, with photographs (pp. 159–64), pls. 1–6 (AE 1989, 684; SEG 39, 1290; K. J. Rigsby, Asylia [1996], pp. 433–37, no. 214)
Author
GP